Personality and Social Norms Research Lab

Janice Habarth, Ph.D., Principle Investigator

The Personality & Social Norms (PSN) Lab examines topics involving socially normative attitudes and beliefs. Our projects are inspired by feminist and intersectionality theories as well as scholarship on intergroup contact, personality, and prejudice. Most of our projects focus on how personality and social demographic variables relate to attitudes about gender and sexual orientation. As a lab team, we also share interests in stigma, marginalization, and minority stress. Commonly examined constructs include tolerance of ambiguity, heteronormativity, sexual and gender minority stress, and outcomes such as healthcare provider cultural competence, mental health, and life satisfaction. PSN lab members commonly develop and propose their dissertation project by the end of their third doctoral training year and often contribute to new data collection, data analysis projects, conference proposals, and/or preparation of empirical manuscripts for publication beginning in their second doctoral training year. 

Current and potential new projects:

  1. Trans and gender nonbinary competencies among healthcare providers    
  2. Feminist attitudes, identities, and psychological well-being
  3. Mindfulness and personality-based prejudice reduction studies
  4. Intersecting identities as they relate to experiences of marginalization, minority stress, and socially normative attitudes

Desirable characteristics for new lab members include strong commitments to cultural humility and the examination of prejudice as well as demonstrated interest in:

  • Contributing to literature reviews, new study development, and IRB proposal development - e.g., support of advanced students' dissertation projects
  • Collaborating as co-authors on publications and posters
  • Developing statistical skills and confidence
  • Engaging in meaningful reflection and ongoing professional growth

We are an active, collaborative research lab.  We generally meet weekly throughout the academic year to discuss research projects as well as broader topics related to professional development.  Current PAU Ph.D. students wishing to apply to work with PSN and Dr. Habarth should submit a cover letter, CV listing 3 references, and an unofficial transcript to

Would you like to speak with a current research lab member?  The following students would be glad to hear from you!

Suzanne Hickey:

Cara Neal:

Alli Barkin:

Madina Barekzia:

Keely Angelo:

Cassidy Van Trease:


For additional information, please contact:  

Faculty P.I.:   


Selected publications (*denotes student/mentee):

Lee, H.*, Tomita, K.*, Habarth, J., Operario, D., Yi, H., Choo., S., & Kim, S. (2020). Internalized transphobia and mental health among transgender adults: A nationwide, cross-sectional survey in South Korea. International Journal of Transgender Health, 21(2), 182-193.

Habarth, J., Makhoulian, S.*, Nelson, J.*, Todd, C.*, & Trafalis, S. (2019). Beyond simple differences: Moderators of gender differences in heteronormativity. Journal of Homosexuality, 67(6), 740-767.

Habarth, J., Wickham, R., Holmes, K.*, Sandoval, M.*, & Balsam, K. F. (2019). Heteronormativity and psychological well-being among women in heterosexual and same-sex relationships. Psychology & Sexuality, 10(3), 185-199.

Habarth, J. (2015). Development of the Heteronormative Attitudes and Beliefs Scale. Psychology & Sexuality, 6(2), 166-188.

Testa, R. J., Habarth, J., Peta, J., Balsam, K., & Bockting, W. (2015). Development of the Gender Minority Stress and Resilience Measure. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(1), 65-77.

Bussolari, C., Habarth, J., Phillips, S.*, Katz, R., & Packman, W. (2018). Self-compassion, social constraints, and psychosocial outcomes in a recently bereaved pet loss sample. OMEGA – Journal of Death and Dying, 82(3), 389-408.

Garneau-Fournier, J.*, Turchik, J., & Habarth, J. (2018). Factors associated with sexual dysfunction symptoms among veterans who have experienced military sexual trauma. International Journal of Sexual Health, 30, 28-41.

Selected conference presentations (*denotes student/mentee):

(2021) Habarth, J. (Chair; Under Review). Decolonizing the syllabus: Lessons learned from a Fall 2020 graduate research methods course. Symposium submitted for presentation at the American        Psychological Association Annual Convention in San Diego, CA.

(2020) Habarth, J., McConnell, E., Ryu, D., & Tormala, T. Who is counting whom? Toward inclusive, valid demographic measurement strategies. Interactive discussion proposal accepted for presentation at the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Summer Conference in Denver, CO. (Conference canceled due to COVID-19).

(2020, Aug.) Van Trease, C.*, Habarth, J., Angelo, K.*, & Sandoval, M.*. Predicting postincarceration stigma in a vignette study: Do demographics matter? Poster presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention in Washington, D.C. (Presented online due to COVID-19).

(2020, Mar.) Angelo, K.*, Habarth, J., Van Trease, C.*, & Sandoval, M.*. Post-incarceration government assistance for transgender people: What predicts endorsement? Poster presented at the American Psychology Law Society Annual Conference in New Orleans, LA. 

(2019, Aug.) Habarth, J. Demographic moderators of relationships between feminism and psychological well-being in a diverse U.S. sample. In Ellois, V. (Chair). Political world changes and impact on vulnerable populations. Collaborative symposium presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention in Chicago, IL.

(2019, Aug.) Barkin, A.*, & Habarth, J. Feminism and depressive symptoms among sexually diverse Asian American women. Poster presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention in Chicago, IL

(2019, Jan.) Habarth, J., Kelly, S., & Johnson, A.* (Chair). From theory to practice: Toward culturally responsive training in graduate clinical education. Symposium presented at the National Multicultural Conference and Summit in Denver, CO.

(2018, Aug.) Beltran, M.*, Wolff, M.*, & Habarth, J. Feminism and psychological wellbeing among U.S. Latina women. Poster proposal presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention in San Francisco, CA.

(2018, Jun.) Habarth, J. Socially normative attitudes in everyday life: Stigma, stress, and healthcare provider competencies. Poster presented at the Institute for Academic Feminist Psychologists in Miami, FL.

(2017, Aug.) Mahmoodhi, V.*, & Habarth, J. Moderating effects of gender role attitudes on the relationships between Islamic religiosity and psychological wellbeing in a sample of U.S. Muslim postpartum women. Poster presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention in Washington, D.C.

(2017, Aug.) Leslie, A., Ryu, D.*, & Habarth, J. Content validity analysis of a healthcare provider TGNC competency scale. Poster presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention in Washington, D.C.

(2016, Aug.) Todd, C.*, Sandoval, M.*, & Habarth, J. Heteronormativity and associated predictors in a diverse internet sample. Poster presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention in Denver, CO.

(2016, Jun.) Mahmoodi, M.*, & Habarth, J. Perinatal cultural and religious practices of U.S. Muslim women. Poster presented at the Postpartum Support International Annual Conference in San Diego, CA